List of Publications

Block Time Step Storage Scheme for Astrophysical N-body Simulations

Cai, Maxwell Xu; Meiron, Yohai; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Assmann, Paulina; Spurzem, Rainer

Astrophysical research in recent decades has made significant progress thanks to the availability of various N-body simulation techniques. With the rapid development of high-performance computing technologies, modern simulations have been able to use the computing power of massively parallel clusters with more than $10^5$GPU cores. While unprecedented accuracy and dynamical scales have been achieved, the enormous amount of data being generated continuously poses great challenges for the subsequent procedures of data analysis and archiving. In this paper, we propose an adaptive storage scheme for simulation data, inspired by the block time step (BTS) integration scheme found in a number of direct $N$-body integrators available nowadays, as an urgent response to these challenges. The proposed scheme, namely, the BTS storage scheme, works by minimizing the data redundancy by assigning individual output frequencies to the data as required by the researcher. As demonstrated by benchmarks, the proposed scheme is applicable to a wide variety of simulations. Despite the main focus of developing a solution for direct $N$-body simulation data, the methodology is transferable for grid-based or tree-based simulations where hierarchical time stepping is used.

Evolution of star clusters on eccentric orbits

Cai, Maxwell Xu; Gieles, Mark; Heggie, Douglas C.; Varri, Anna Lisa

We study the evolution of star clusters on circular and eccentric orbits using direct N-body simulations. We model clusters with initially $N = 8 {\rm k}$ and $N = 16 {\rm k}$ single stars of the same mass, orbiting around a point-mass galaxy. For each orbital eccentricity that we consider, we find the apogalactic radius at which the cluster has the same lifetime as the cluster with the same N on a circular orbit. We show that then, the evolution of bound particle number and half-mass radius is approximately independent of eccentricity. Secondly, when we scale our results to orbits with the same semimajor axis, we find that the lifetimes are, to first order, independent of eccentricity. When the results of Baumgardt and Makino for a singular isothermal halo are scaled in the same way, the lifetime is again independent of eccentricity to first order, suggesting that this result is independent of the galactic mass profile. From both sets of simulations, we empirically derive the higher order dependence of the lifetime on eccentricity. Our results serve as benchmark for theoretical studies of the escape rate from clusters on eccentric orbits. Finally, our results can be useful for generative models for cold streams and cluster evolution models that are confined to spherical symmetry and/or time-independent tides, such as Fokker-Planck models, Monte Carlo models, and (fast) semi-analytic models.

Stability of multiplanetary systems in star clusters

Cai, Maxwell Xu; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.; Spurzem, Rainer

Most stars form in star clusters and stellar associations. However, only about $\sim 1\%$ of the presently known exoplanets are found in these environments. To understand the roles of star cluster environments in shaping the dynamical evolution of planetary systems, we carry out direct $N$-body simulations of four planetary systems models in three different star cluster environments with respectively $N=2{\rm k}, 8{\rm k}$ and $32{\rm k}$ stars. In each cluster, an ensemble of initially identical planetary systems are assigned to solar-type stars with $\sim 1 M_{\odot}$ and evolved for 50~Myr. We found that following the depletion of protoplanetary disks, external perturbations and planet-planet interactions are two driving mechanisms responsible for the destabilization of planetary systems. The planet survival rate varies from $\sim 95\%$ in the $N=2$k cluster to $\sim 60\%$ in the $N=32{\rm k}$ cluster, which suggests that most planetary systems can indeed survive in low-mass clusters, except in the central regions. We also find that planet ejections through stellar encounters are cumulative processes, as only $\sim 3\%$ of encounters are strong enough to excite the eccentricity by $\Delta e \geq 0.5$. Short-period planets can be perturbed through orbit crossings with long-period planets. When taking into account planet-planet interactions, the planet ejection rate nearly doubles, and therefore multiplicity contributes to the vulnerability of planetary systems. In each ensemble, $\sim 0.2\%$ of planetary orbits become retrograde due to random directions of stellar encounters. Our results predict that young low-mass star clusters are promising sites for next-generation planet surveys, yet low planet detection rates are expected in dense globular clusters such as 47 Tuc. Nevertheless, planets in denser stellar environments are likely to have shorter orbital periods, which enhances their detectability.